Coronal loops, well-defined sizzling strands of plasma that arch out into the solar’s environment, are iconic to the solar’s imagery. However lots of the supposed coronal loops we see won’t be there in any respect.
Some coronal loops may be an phantasm created by “wrinkles” of better density in a curtain of plasma dubbed the coronal veil, researchers suggest March 2 in Astrophysical Journal. If true, the discovering, sparked by sudden plasma buildings seen in laptop simulations of the solar’s environment, might change how scientists go about measuring some properties of our star.
“It’s sort of inspiring to see these detailed buildings,” says Markus Aschwanden, an astrophysicist at Lockheed Martin’s Photo voltaic & Astrophysics Lab in Palo Alto, Calif., who was not concerned within the examine. “They’re so completely different than what we anticipated.”
Scientists have begun to develop a higher understanding of the solar’s complicated environment, or corona, solely in the previous few years (SN: 12/19/17). Coronal loops have been used to measure many properties of the corona, together with temperature and density, and so they could also be key to determining why the solar’s environment is a lot hotter than its floor (SN: 8/20/17). However astronomers have lengthy puzzled simply how the loops look like so orderly after they originate within the solar’s turbulent floor (SN: 8/17/17).
So photo voltaic physicist Anna Malanushenko and her colleagues tried to isolate particular person coronal loops in 3-D laptop simulations initially developed to simulate the life cycle of a photo voltaic flare. The staff anticipated to see neatly oriented strands of plasma, as a result of coronal loops seem to align themselves to the solar’s magnetic area, like steel shavings round a bar magnet.
As a substitute, the plasma appeared as a curtainlike construction winding out from the solar’s floor that folded in on itself like a wrinkled sheet. Within the simulation, lots of the supposed coronal loops turned out to not be actual objects. Whereas there have been buildings alongside the magnetic fields, they had been neither skinny nor compact as anticipated. They extra intently resembled clouds of smoke. Because the staff modified the standpoint from which they checked out these wrinkles within the veil within the simulation, their form and orientation modified. And from sure viewing angles, the wrinkles resembled coronal loops.
The observations had been mind-blowing, says Malanushenko, of the Nationwide Middle for Atmospheric Analysis in Boulder, Colo. “The standard thought was that if we see this arching coronal loop that there’s a backyard hose–like strand of plasma.” The construction within the simulation was far more complicated and displayed sophisticated boundaries and a raggedy construction.
Nonetheless, not all coronal loops are essentially illusions inside a coronal veil. “We don’t know which of them are actual and which of them will not be,” Malanushenko says. “And we completely want to have the ability to inform to review the photo voltaic environment.”
It’s additionally not clear how the purported coronal veil may influence earlier analyses of the photo voltaic environment. “On one hand, that is miserable,” Malanushenko says of the way in which the brand new findings solid doubt on earlier understandings. Alternatively, she finds the uncertainty thrilling. Astronomers might want to develop a option to observe the veil and ensure its existence. “At any time when we develop new strategies, we open the door for brand spanking new data.”